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Dynamic Chiropractic Canada – March 1, 2009, Vol. 02, Issue 02
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"JMPT" Abstracts

January 2009, Vol. 32, Issue 1

By Editorial Staff

Manipulative Therapy for Lower Extremity Conditions: Expansion of Literature Review
James W. Brantingham, DC, PhD, Gary Globe, DC, MBA, PhD, Henry Pollard, DC, PhD, et al.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on manipulative therapy for lower extremity conditions and expand on a previously published literature review.

Methods: The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Science Direct; and Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched from December 2006 to February 2008. Search terms included chiropractic, osteopathic, orthopedic, or physical therapy and MeSH terms for each region. Inclusion criteria required a diagnosis and manipulative therapy (mobilization and manipulation grades I-V) with or without adjunctive care. Exclusion criteria were pain referred from spinal sites (without diagnosis), referral for surgery, and conditions contraindicated for manipulative therapy. Clinical trials were assessed using a modified Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ranking system.

Results: Of the total 389 citations captured, 39 were determined to be relevant. There is a level of C or limited evidence for manipulative therapy combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for hip osteoarthritis. There is a level of B or fair evidence for manipulative therapy of the knee and/or full kinetic chain, and of the ankle and/or foot, combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for knee osteoarthritis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and ankle inversion sprain. There is also a level of C or limited evidence for manipulative therapy of the ankle and/or foot combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for plantar fasciitis, metatarsalgia, and hallux limitus/rigidus. There is also a level of I or insufficient evidence for manipulative therapy of the ankle and/or foot combined with multimodal or exercise therapy for hallux abducto valgus.

Conclusion: There are a growing number of peer-reviewed studies of manipulative therapy for lower extremity disorders.


Chiropractic Management of Myofascial Trigger Points and Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Howard Vernon, DC, PhD, Michael Schneider, DC

Objective: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are important aspects of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to review the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for MPS and MTrPs.

Methods: The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and databases for systematic reviews and clinical guidelines were searched. Separate searches were conducted for (1) manual palpation and algometry, (2) chiropractic and other manual therapies, and (3) other conservative and complementary/alternative therapies. Studies were screened for relevance and rated using the Oxford Scale and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network rating system.

Results: A total of 112 articles were identified. Review of these articles resulted in the following recommendations regarding treatment: Moderately strong evidence supports manipulation and ischemic pressure for immediate pain relief at MTrPs, but only limited evidence exists for long-term pain relief at MTrPs. Evidence supports laser therapy (strong), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, acupuncture, and magnet therapy (all moderate) for MTrPs and MPS, although the duration of relief varies among therapies. Limited evidence supports electrical muscle stimulation, high-voltage galvanic stimulation, interferential current, and frequency modulated neural stimulation in the treatment of MTrPs and MPS. Evidence is weak for ultrasound therapy.

Conclusion: Manual-type therapies and some physiologic therapeutic modalities have acceptable evidentiary support in the treatment of MPS and TrPs.


Chiropractic Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Michael Schneider, DC, PhD, Howard Vernon, DC, PhD, Gordon Ko, MD, Gordon Lawson, MSc, DC, Jerome Perera

Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed nonarticular soft-tissue conditions in all fields of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature for the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for FMS and to provide evidence ratings for these procedures. The emphasis of this literature review was on conservative and nonpharmaceutical therapies.

Methods: The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. Online comprehensive literature searches were performed of the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; National Guidelines Clearinghouse; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Index to Chiropractic Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Allied and Complementary Medicine; and PubMed up to June 2006.

Results: Our search yielded the following results: eight systematic reviews, three meta-analyses, five published guidelines, and one consensus document. Our direct search of the databases for additional randomized trials did not find any chiropractic randomized clinical trials that were not already included in one or more of the systematic reviews/guidelines. The review of the Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases yielded an additional 38 articles regarding various nonpharmacologic therapies such as chiropractic, acupuncture, nutritional/herbal supplements, massage, etc. Review of these articles resulted in the following recommendations regarding nonpharmaceutical treatments of FMS: Strong evidence supports aerobic exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy. Moderate evidence supports massage, muscle strength training, acupuncture, and spa therapy (balneotherapy). Limited evidence supports spinal manipulation, movement/body awareness, vitamins, herbs, and dietary modification.

Conclusion: Several nonpharmacologic treatments and manual-type therapies have acceptable evidentiary support in the treatment of FMS.


Chiropractic Management of Tendinopathy: A Literature Synthesis
Mark T. Pfefer, RN, MS, DC, Stephan R. Cooper, DC, Nathan L. Uhl, DC

Objective: Chronic tendon pathology is a soft-tissue condition commonly seen in chiropractic practice. Tendonitis, tendinosis, and tendinopathy are terms used to describe this clinical entity. The purpose of this article is to review interventions commonly used by doctors of chiropractic when treating tendinopathy.

Methods: The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. A literature search was performed using the PubMed; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Index to Chiropractic Literature; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; National Guidelines Clearinghouse; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; and Turning Research Into Practice databases. The inclusion criteria were manual therapies, spinal manipulation, mobilization, tendonitis, tendinopathy, tendinosis, cryotherapy, bracing, orthotics, massage, friction massage, transverse friction massage, electrical stimulation, acupuncture, exercise, eccentric exercise, laser, and therapeutic ultrasound.

Results: There is evidence that ultrasound therapy provides clinically important improvement in the treatment of calcific tendonitis. There is limited evidence of the benefit of manipulation and mobilization in the treatment of tendinopathy. Limited evidence exists to support the use of supervised exercise, eccentric exercise, friction massage, acupuncture, laser therapy, use of bracing, orthotics, and cryotherapy in the treatment of tendinopathy.

Conclusion: Chiropractors often provide a number of conservative interventions commonly used to treat tendinopathy.

JMPT abstracts are reprinted with permission from the journal. Due to space restrictions, we cannot always print all abstracts from a given issue. Visit www.mosby.com/jmpt for access to the complete January issue of JMPT.

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